Translation disclaimer (Translation disclaimer)

This content has been translated by a computer program and may not be 100% accurate.

(This content has been translated by a computer program and may not be 100% accurate.)

Children with special educational needs and disabilities

Children and young people with special educational needs or disabilities (SEND) experience higher levels of poverty and personal and social disadvantage than the general population. They are more likely to live with low income, deprivation, debt and poor housing, particularly those disabled children and young people from black, minority ethnic or mixed parentage groups and lone parent households (Blackburn, et al., 2010).

The Children and Families Act (2014) introduced new duties on the 'Local Area' (the Local Authority and the local Clinical Commissioning Group) to change the way that they work with children and young people with SEND and their families. These duties are set out in the new SEND Code of Practice, amended in 2015.

The Local Area has a duty to make sure that:

  • Children and young people with SEND have their needs identified as quickly as possible
  • Provision and support are in place to meet their needs
  • Their life chances improve through better educational, social care and health outcomes that prepare them for a fulfilling adult life.
  • There is information about local support and services available online. (See Calderdale's Local Offer.)

The Local Area has worked hard to implement these new duties and has a detailed action plan, based on a robust self evaluation, to meet the local challenges. An important part of this process is to have an accurate picture of local needs to support future planning.

The local picture

The numbers of children with SEND in Calderdale

The number and percentage of children and young people identified as having a learning disability in Calderdale has seen a drop from 2019/20 as shown in graphs below. In Calderdale the percentage of pupils with a learning disability is significantly higher than Yorkshire & Humber and England. However, the gap is narrowing.

Image
Pupils with a learning disability
Year 2018/19 2019/20 2020/21 2021/22 2022/23
How many 2.819 2,837 2,647 2,609 2,379

 

Image
Percentage of pupils with a learning disability
  2018/19 2019/20 2020/21 2021/22 2022/23
Calderdale 7.25 7.49 6.97 6.88 6.31
Yorkshire and Humber 5.54 5.44 5.33 5.30 5.26
England 5.02 4.97 4.89 4.86 4.81

The Calderdale Disabled Children's Census

The Disabled Children's Census is based on data collected in January 2018 and includes data on all children and young people aged 0 to 25 years resident in Calderdale and on record as having a disability or actively accessing services, irrespective of the level of support.

Image
Image
Calderdale Disabled Children's Census by age group
  0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 Total
2015 157 450 559 379 16 1561
2016 134 454 581 417 151 1737
2017 342 502 636 445 236 2161

NB. The increase in children from 0-4 and young people from 20-24 is thought to be due to improved recording.

Image
Image
Image
Image

NB. The % data for black, mixed and other are unreliable as the cohorts are small.

Image

 

Image

Children and young people with EHC plans

The number of pupils with an EHC plan has increased year-on-year since the Children and Families Act (2014) was introduced.

Image
  2018/19 2019/20 2020/21 2021/22 2022/23
Calderdale Children on EHC Plan 1,068 1,154 1,280 1,465 1,687

The percentage of pupils with EHCP in the school population has followed a similar pattern which is in line with the Yorkshire and Humber region and England. The percentage has been steadily rising since 2015/16. In 2022/23 the percentage of Calderdale pupils with an EHC plan was 4.47% compared to 3.84% for the Yorkshire and Humber and 4.29% for England. Calderdale has been significantly higher than Yorkshire and Humber since 2021/22.

Image

This table shows the Percentage of pupils with an EHC Plan:

Region 2018/19 2019/20 2020/21 2021/22 2022/23
Calderdale 2.82 3.05 3.37 3.86 4.47
Yorkshire and Humber 2.76 2.97 3.27 3.54 3.84
England 3.07 3.32 3.65 3.95 4.29

The placement of children and young people with EHC plans 2022/23

Type England Yorkshire and Humber Calderdale
Academy alternative provision converter 0.24 0.58 0.36
Academy alternative provision sponsor led 0.03 0.05 0.00
Academy converter 19.62 24.54 24.84
Academy special converter 11.42 10.78 0.00
Academy special sponsor led 2.50 3.39 0.00
Academy sponsor led 8.56 11.91 9.66
Community school 14.07 14.02 16.48
Community special school 18.31 21.67 27.27
Foundation school 2.28 1.56 2.67
Foundation special school 3.84 1.54 0.00
Free schools 1.57 0.97 0.00
Free schools 16 to 19 0.04 0.09 0.47
Free schools alternative provision 0.12 0.30 0.00
Free schools special 1.87 1.13 0.00
Local authority nursery school 0.17 0.30 0.00
Non-maintained special school 1.03 0.97 4.62
Other independent school 1.75 0.82 0.30
Other independent special school 5.65 4.26 9.54
Pupil referral unit 0.48 1.12 0.00
Voluntary aided school 4.45 0.00 2.02
Voluntary controlled school 2.00 0.00 1.78

Assessments for EHC plans

Number of new EHC plans
  2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Calderdale 69 80 115 136 140 169 210 262 317

In Calderdale the number of new statements or EHC plans has increased steadily since the introduction of the CFA (2014).

The CFA (2014) required that all new EHC plans are completed within 20 weeks. In Calderdale this target met on significantly more occasions than regionally or nationally.

Percentage of new EHC plans issued within 20 weeks
  2018 2019 2020 2021
England 60.1 60.4 58.0 59.9
Yorkshire and Humber 61.5 72.1 73.1 65.6
Calderdale 96.1 100 89.4 100
         
Mediation cases which were followed by appeals to the SEN tribunal in 2018
  Number of mediations registered Number of mediations to appeal through tribunal Percentage of mediations registered that went to appeal through tribunal
England 2497 630 25.2%
Yorkshire and Humber 374 98 26.2%
Calderdale 14 5 26.8%

Children and young people on SEN support

SEN support includes those children and young people with special educational needs and disabilities who do not meet the threshold required for an EHC plan. The support for their additional needs will be school based and funded from the schools 'notional' SEN budget of up to £6,000 per pupil.

Image
  2019/20 2020/21 2021/22 2022/23
Calderdale 4686 4581 4567 4455

The percentage of pupils with SEN support in Calderdale has decreased since 2019/20. Whereas it has been on the increase for both Yorkshire & Humber and England. Calderdale currently has a similar percentage of children receiving SEN support to England. However, it is significantly lower than Yorkshire and Humber.

Image

This table shows the percentage of pupils with SEN Support:

Region 2019/20 2020/21 2021/22 2022/23
England 11.24 11.25 11.60 12.05
Yorkshire & Humber 11.96 11.99 12.39 13.00
Calderdale 12.37 12.07 12.04 11.82

2, 3 and 4 year olds in early education January 2023

Percentage of 2 year old children that benefit from funded early education and 3/4 year olds that benefit from universal funded early education with SEN, January 2023
  2 year olds 3 and 4 year olds
  EHCP SEN support All SEN EHCP SEN support All SEN
England 0.7 4.2 4.9 1.3 6.7 8.0
Yorkshire and Humber 0.5 4.2 4.7 1.1 7.5 8.6
Calderdale 1.5 9.2 10.7 2.7 7.3 10.0

 

Percentage of 3/4 year-old children that benefit from extended funded early education January 2023
  Statements or EHCP SEN Support Total SEN
England 0.6 3.6 4.1
Yorkshire & Humber 0.6 3.7 4.3
Calderdale 1.8 4.6 6.5

Overall percentages of pupils with SEN in primary, secondary and special schools January 2022/23

In Calderdale the percentage of pupils with SEN in state funded primary schools is similar to both Yorkshire & Humber and England.

Primary schools EHCP SEN Support Total % with SEN
England 2.5 13.5 16.1
Yorkshire and Humber 2.2 14.3 16.5
Calderdale 2.9 13.4 16.4

In Calderdale the percentage of pupils with SEN in state funded secondary schools is significantly lower than Yorkshire & Humber and England.

Secondary schools EHCPs SEN Support Total % with SEN
England 2.4 12.4 14.8
Yorkshire and Humber 2.3 12.6 14.9
Calderdale 2.5 10.9 13.3

In Calderdale the percentage of pupils with SEN in state funded special schools all have an EHCP, whereas in England and Yorkshire and Humber some special schools have pupils on SEN Support.

Special schools EHCPs SEN Support Total % with SEN
England 99.2 0.8 100
Yorkshire and Humber 99.7 0.3 100
Calderdale 100 0.0 100

In Calderdale the percentage of pupils with SEN in all state funded schools is lower to those in Yorkshire & Humber and England.

All schools EHCPs SEN Support Total pupils with SEN
England 4.2 12.8 17.0
Yorkshire and Humber 3.7 13.4 17.1
Calderdale 4.0 12.1 16.0

The 'primary needs' of children and young people with SEND January 2022/23

This is the main reported need, but it is possible that there is more than one identified special educational need or disability.

Primary schools

In Calderdale state funded primary schools there is variation from regional and national percentages in relation to:

  • Moderate learning difficulties (MLD);
  • Speech, language and communication needs (SLC);
  • Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD);
  • and SEN support - no specialist assessment of need.

It is possible that the higher figures for MLD contain unidentified SLC and ASD needs.

This table shows the percentage of pupils with SEN by primary type of need in state funded primary schools:

Primary Need England Yorkshire & Humber Calderdale
Specific learning difficulty 8.86 9.66 10.05
Moderate learning difficulty 15.48 16.66 24.76
Severe learning difficulty 0.51 0.54 0.36
Profound and multiple learning difficulty 0.23 0.23 0.52
Social, emotional and mental health 17.47 16.02 16.20
Speech, language and communication need 34.40 35.86 30.07
Hearing impairment 1.46 1.61 1.43
Visual impairment 0.81 0.92 1.07
Multi-sensory impairment 0.32 0.23 0.32
Physical disability 2.35 2.54 3.11
Autistic Spectrum Disorder 10.60 9.55 6.09
Other 2.98 2.55 3.37
SEN support - no specialist assessment of need 4.53 3.62 2.66

Secondary schools

In Calderdale state funded secondary schools there is variation from regional and national percentages in relation to:

  • Moderate learning difficulties’ (MLD);
  • Social, emotional and mental health (SEMH);
  • and SEN support - no specialist assessment of need.

This table shows the percentage of pupils with SEN by primary type of need in state funded secondary schools:

Primary Need England Yorkshire and Humber Calderdale
Specific learning difficulty 18.72 17.95 19.38
Moderate learning difficulty 17.04 20.01 25.04
Severe learning difficulty 0.34 0.46 0.48
Profound and multiple learning difficulty 0.09 0.06 0.09
Social, emotional and mental health 23.56 23.40 16.65
Speech, language and communication need 12.57 10.88 8.70
Hearing impairment 1.98 2.46 2.50
Visual impairment 1.22 1.43 1.67
Multi-sensory impairment 0.30 0.15 0.18
Physical disability 2.69 2.94 2.94
Autistic Spectrum Disorder 13.58 14.43 14.24
Other 5.00 3.78 3.56
SEN support - no specialist assessment of need 2.91 2.05 4.57

Special Schools

In Calderdale state funded secondary schools there is variation from regional and national percentages in relation to:

  • Moderate learning difficulties (MLD);
  • Social, emotional and mental health (SEMH);
  • and SEN support - no specialist assessment of need.

This table shows the percentage of pupils with SEN by primary type of need in state funded special schools:

Primary Need England Yorkshire & Humber Calderdale
Specific learning difficulty 2.06 2.76 2.17
Moderate learning difficulty 9.87 7.77 1.30
Severe learning difficulty 18.57 17.00 39.78
Profound and multiple learning difficulty 5.69 6.85 9.35
Social, emotional and mental health 12.31 12.53 L2.39
Speech, language and communication need 10.10 10.74 5.43
Hearing impairment 0.74 0.34 0.43
Visual impairment 0.55 0.65 1.30
Multi-sensory impairment 0.22 0.16 0.65
Physical disability 2.84 3.89 2.39
Autistic Spectrum Disorder 34.98 35.22 34.13
Other 1.98 2.10 0.65
SEN support – no specialist assessment of need 0.08 0.01 0.00

SEN units and resourced provision

There are currently 2 primary schools with 6 pupils in KS1 resourced provision and 6 pupils in KS2 resourced provision.  There is 1 secondary school with 10 pupils in KS4 ASD resourced provision.  There are no SEN Units in Calderdale.

16 and 17 year olds in education and training

This table shows the percentage of 16 and 17 year olds recorded in education and training in June 2017

  SEND No SEND
England 87.4 91.5
Yorkshire and Humber 88.2 92.2
Calderdale 88.5 92.1

Outcomes for Pupils with Special Needs Support

The cohort of pupils with EHC plans is small and the needs of the pupils are complex, therefore the cohort has not been compared to national.

The cohort at special needs support is larger and it is appropriate to use national comparisons to inform our analysis of data. Provision is effective resulting in pupils achieving well by the end of Key Stage 4, with special needs support achieving above the same group nationally. A multi-agency approach through the authority’s ‘Mind the Gap’ campaign is underway to ensure that the gaps close sooner and outcomes improve by the end of early years and the primary phase.

      National Calderdale
Early Years - % Good Level of Development + All Pupils 2016 69.3 67.5
2017 70.7 68.3
2018 71.6 70
SEND K 2016 25.6 26.4
2017 26.4 31.3
2018 27.6 17.7
No SEND 2016 74.5 72.7
2017 75.9 72.5
2018 77.1 75.3
Gap to National SEND K 2016   0.8
2017   4.9
2018   -9.9
Y1 - % Phonics Screening Check All Pupils 2016 80.6 81.8
2017 81.2 80.4
2018 82.5 82.1
SEND K 2016 45.9 45.1
2017 46.4 39.2
2018 48.3 49.1
No SEND 2016 86.3 87.6
2017 87.1 87.1
2018 88.5 87
Gap to National SEND K 2016   -0.8
2017   -7.2
2018   0.8
End of Key Stage 1 - % Combined RWM Expected+ All Pupils 2016 60.3 49.8
2017 63.7 56.5
2018 65.3 59.6
SEND K 2016 17.3 9.9
2017 19.2 13.2
2018 20.6 12.8
No SEND 2016 68.1 57.5
2017 71.8 64
2018 73.7 68.1
Gap to National SEND K 2016   -7.4
2017   -6
2018   -7.8
End of Key Stage 2 - % Combined RWM Expected+ All Pupils 2016 53.4 47
2017 61.1 58.2
2018 64.4 61.4
SEND K 2016 15.8 11.5
2017 20.4 12.3
2018 24 18.5
No SEND 2016 61.8 56
2017 70.2 68
2018 73.7 70.8
Gap to National SEND K 2016   -4.3
2017   -8.1
2018   -5.5
End of Key Stage 4 - % Level 4+ in Reading and Maths All Pupils 2016 63 65.4
2017 63.9 65.6
2018 64.2 68.4
SEND K 2016 29 37
2017 30.1 35.2
2018 31.4 36
No SEND 2016 69.7 71.1
2017 70.4 72.2
2018 70.6 74.4
Gap to National SEND K 2016   8
2017   5.1
2018   4.6
End of Key Stage 4 - Attainment 8 All Pupils 2016 50 51.4
2017 46.3 48.2
2018 46.5 49.4
SEND K 2016 36.2 41.7
2017 31.9 34.8
2018 32.2 35.8
No SEND 2016 53.2 53.7
2017 49.5 51.3
2018 49.8 52.1
Gap to National SEND K 2016   5.5
2017   2.9
2018   3.6

The main sources for the above are:

Current provision

Services provided for children with SEND are set out in Calderdale’s Local Offer. (A requirement of the Children and Families Act 2014.) It is updated often, setting out all of the services available to young people, parents and carers of children with SEND. This includes mainstream, targeted and specialist services:

  • Key working/person centred principles.
  • Universal services, such as Children’s Centres, youth clubs, Sports zone, nurseries, libraries, play schemes and pools.
  • Targeted services such as Sports zone, swimming, ‘Jam packed summer’, Gateway and early years support.
  • Portage and early years support teachers (PEYST) plus other SEN support Early years quality improvement support officers.
  • Early years providers are encouraged to provide their own local offer details.
  • Family services offer information and guidance on support services: finance, health, behaviour, parenting, relationships and family leisure activities.
  • Schools (mainstream/special) and details of SEN provision offered.
  • Support for parents and young people, helping to find the right advice and support quickly.
  • Care services to supporting individuals through to adulthood.
  • Specialist health care available.
  • Transition through education.
  • Preparing for adulthood; support to help young people find work and live as independently as possible.
  • Transition to adults services.
  • Unique Ways is a parent carer led organisation supporting disabled children and their families to lead ordinary lives, ensuring the voices of parents and carers are heard.
  • The SEND Information, advice and support service (SENDIASS) provides legally based, impartial, confidential and accessible information, advice and support for parents of children and young people with SEN or disabilities about education, health and social care.
  • Information about short breaks offered by local voluntary and charitable organisations and Calderdale Council.
  • Specialist services such as Direct payments for care services, Disabled children’s team, SEN transport, Specialist health professional support, day time care of disabled, overnight support and Linden Brook respite care. 

User views

The Children and Family Act (2014) requires the participation of children, their parents and young people in making decisions about their own plans and how the duties laid out in the act are developed and implemented.

The views of children and young people with SEND and their families are gathered as part of a child or young person, centred process used for the preparation of individual plans. Help advice and support is available through Unique WaysCalderdale and Kirklees SENDIASS and the Independent Advice and Support Programme to make sure that their views and aspirations are reflected in completed plans.

Calderdale commissions Unique Ways to carry out an annual survey of parent carers of children and young people with SEND to gather information about their experience of the support and services available. The findings from the survey are used by a wide range of teams, services and workgroups to review and improve services and support.

Some of the key findings of the 2018 parent carer survey can be found in the ‘Parent carers of children with complex needs’ section of the Calderdale JSNA.

Unique ways and Family Voice Calderdale, the local parent carer forum, are key partners and representatives from both organisations participate in the strategic and operational workstreams that develop and implement the requirements of the CFA (2014). Family Voice Calderdale and the local authority are developing a ‘Working together’ or ‘Co-production’ policy to ensure that policy and practice is developed with parent and carer representative so that any changes feel that they have been ‘done with’ and not ’done to’ parents and cares.

Calderdale works with the ‘SEND reference group’ a group of young people with SEND, to review and advise on aspects of the duties in the CFA (2104). The group work as part of Calderdale’s ‘Voice and Influence’ team on discrete areas of research into the lived experience of young people with SEND producing and presenting their reports to key partners and forums.

Calderdale is planning to launch a series of evaluative questionnaires on the experience of SEN support in schools and the EHC assessment and planning process that will gather the views of children and young people with SEND and their families.

Unmet need

Our local challenges are:

  • Addressing the needs of the growing numbers of children with complex health conditions who are able to live longer due to improvements in medical treatment. 
  • Significantly reducing the waiting time for a diagnosis for Autistic Spectrum Disorder
  • Support for parent carers, children and young people pre and post a diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder.
  • Strengthening support following sensory needs assessments.
  • Improving the consistency and quality of SEN support in schools.
  • Continue to increase the numbers of young people with SEND gaining employment.
  • Closing the gap sooner in educational outcomes for children with SEN support in Calderdale compared to the same group nationally.

Projected future need

The Calderdale Disabled Children’s Census show a year on year increase in the number of disabled children over the last three years. This trend is due in part to improved recording and it is therefore difficult to predict if this is likely to continue or not.

The increase in the percentage of pupils with EHC plans in Calderdale, which has risen over the last three years from 2.5% to 2.7%, combined with a projected rise in the school population is likely to result in an increase in the numbers or pupils with EHC plans in Calderdale.

The reduction of the percentage of pupils in Calderdale with SEN support from 12.8% to 11.9% combined with a projected rise in the school population is likely to result in a relatively static number of pupils with SEN support.

Following national, regional and local trends the numbers of children and young people with a diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder is likely to increase.

Following national, regional and local trends the numbers of children and young people with social emotional and mental health needs is likely to increase.

Key considerations linked to the known evidence base (what works?)

Unrecognised, unidentified or undiagnosed special educational need or disabilities are likely to result in a significant negative effect on progress and attainment. Therefore early identification and intervention is essential reduce the effect of any special educational need or disability. The local area has effective measures in place for identifying special educational needs and disabilities as quickly as possible.

The most effective plans and interventions include some or all of the following:

  • Involving children and young people with SEND and their parent carers in the preparation of EHC plans or support plans in school.
  • Using processes that are child-centred and, where appropriate, multi-disciplinary.
  • A good ‘section A’ in an EHC plan, the part that identified the child or young persons aspirations, leads to the most effective plans.
  • Plans based on clear, achievable but aspirational outcomes combined with effective tailored provision and robust and timely reviews are likely to be effective.

The assessment and planning process should therefore:

  • Focus on the child or young person as an individual.
  • Enable children or young people and their parents to express views, wishes and feelings.
  • Enable children or young people and parents to be part of decision making processes.
  • Be easy for children, young people and parents carers to understand and should use clear ordinary language and images rather than professional jargon.
  • Highlight the child or young person’s strengths and capabilities.
  • enable the child or young person and those that know them best to say what they have done, are interested in and what outcomes they seek in future.
  • Tailor support for individual needs.
  • Organise assessments to minimise demands on families.
  • Bring together relevant professionals to discuss and agree an overall approach.

References

Author: Updated by David Graham (Interim Service Manager for Inclusion and SEND). Date: April 2024.

Webpage feedback

Was this page helpful? Rate this page helpful Rate this page unhelpful